gradle build java project

In addition, they often have either their own dependencies independent of the test source set or they need to be run with a custom Test task. The standard Java API for writing properties files produces a unique file every time, even when the same properties and values are used, because it includes a timestamp in the comments. Whatever technology you use, Gradle and its large community of plugins will satisfy your needs. First of all we have to add java plugin to the build script because it provides tasks to compile Java source code, run unit tests, create Javadoc and create a JAR file. This isn’t sufficient to build any non-trivial Java project — at the very least, you’ll probably have some file dependencies. Gradle can only run on Java version 8 or higher. You can see all the properties and methods available on source sets in the DSL reference for SourceSet and SourceDirectorySet. Use the following line in build.gradle file. There are a number of hands-on samples that you can explore for Copy the below given java code into file and store into consumerbanking\src\main\java\com\bank directory. This chapter explains about how to build a java project using Gradle build file. Each logical group typically has its own sets of file dependencies, classpaths, and more. The Java Library Plugin also integrates the above tasks into the standard Base Plugin lifecycle tasks: The rest of the chapter explains the different avenues for customizing the build to your requirements. Gradle’s Java support was the first to introduce a new concept for building source-based projects: source sets. The plugin’s chapter has more details. But it means that your build script only needs the information that is specific to your project. Changing the classpath of compile tasks, Declaring Dependencies between Subprojects, Understanding Configuration and Execution, Understanding Library and Application Differences, Producing and Consuming Variants of Libraries, Modeling Feature Variants and Optional Dependencies, Declaring your source files via source sets, a location Gradle can detect automatically, Java properties files and reproducible builds. If you don’t have much experience with building JVM-based projects with Gradle, take a look at the Java samples for step-by-step instructions on how to build various types of basic Java projects. Gradle now supports this release flag on CompileOptions directly for Java compilation. We recommend that you follow these conventions wherever possible, but you don’t have to. Imagine you have a legacy project that uses an src directory for the production code and test for the test code. To do this, you need to add Asciidoclet to Javadoc’s doclet path. Without additional parameters, this task creates a Gradle project, which contains the gradle wrapper files, a build.gradle and settings.gradle file. The following example demonstrates how to share common attributes between JARs: Another option available to you is to merge manifests into a single Manifest object. You can also create standalone instances of Manifest. This source set is used by the test task, which runs the tests. With the usage of Java toolchains, this can be done as follows: The only requirement is that Java 7 is installed and has to be either in a location Gradle can detect automatically or explicitly configured. You might also want to create your own Javadoc tasks, for example to generate API docs for the tests: These are just two non-trivial but common customizations that you might come across. Most language plugins, Java included, automatically create a source set called main, which is used for the project’s production code. Separate MANIFEST.MF for a particular archive, Example 13. Other JVM language plugins, such as the one for Groovy, follow the same pattern of conventions. You do not get a Test task for every source set you declare, since not every source set represents tests! See CoreJavadocOptions and StandardJavadocDocletOptions for a complete list of those options. For example, you might use Spring Boot with a fat JAR or a Reactive-based system running on Netty. How you package and potentially publish your Java project depends on what type of project it is. For example: Separate API and implementation JARs — it may make sense to have these as separate projects, particularly if you already have a multi-project build, Generated sources — if the resulting sources should be compiled with the production code, add their path(s) to the main source set and make sure that the compileJava task depends on the task that generates the sources. Using a toolchain makes it illegal to configure the sourceCompatibility or targetCompatibility at the java { } extension level. On top of that, the Java Library Plugin automatically creates a compilation task for every source set you or a plugin defines — named compileSourceSetJava — and several dependency configurations. Defining a custom Javadoc task, Example 15. To enable Java preview features for compilation, test execution and runtime, you can use the following DSL snippet: If you want to leverage the multi language aspect of the JVM, most of what was described here will still apply. One of the most common scenarios is when you have separate integration tests of some form or other. The plugins automatically apply support for compiling Java code and can be further enhanced by combining them with the java-library plugin. As an example of what you can do, imagine you want to use Asciidoc syntax in your Javadoc comments. If you’re unsure of the difference between an API and implementation dependency, the Java Library Plugin chapter has a detailed explanation. Alongside providing automatic compilation of unit tests in src/test/java, the Java Library Plugin has native support for running tests that use JUnit 3, 4 & 5 (JUnit 5 support came in Gradle 4.6) and TestNG. You can easily create Java properties files via the WriteProperties task, which fixes a well-known problem with that can reduce the usefulness of incremental builds. Declaring custom source directories additively, Example 7. This is necessary for projects like For example, if you want to use a separate JVM process for the compiler and prevent compilation failures from failing the build, you can use this configuration: That’s also how you can change the verbosity of the compiler, disable debug output in the byte code and configure where the compiler can find annotation processors. Java web applications can be packaged and deployed in a number of ways depending on the technology you use. Gradle still supports compiling, testing, generating Javadoc and executing applications for Java 6 and Java 7. By default, the Java Library Plugin provides the jar task that packages all the compiled production classes and resources into a single JAR. Those source manifests can take the form of a text for or another Manifest object. The unique aspect of library projects is that they are used (or "consumed") by other Java projects. Java enterprise systems have changed a lot over the years, but if you’re still deploying to JEE application servers, you can make use of the Ear Plugin. Let's start creating a project folder using the PowerShell console with name gradle-employee-app: > mkdir gradle-employee-app. First of all we have to add java plugin to the build script because it provides tasks to compile Java source code, run unit tests, create Javadoc and create a JAR file. You want to be sure that building an artifact from source code produces the same result, byte for byte, no matter when and where it is built. Source sets are a powerful concept that tie together several aspects of compilation: the source files and where they’re located, the compilation classpath, including any required dependencies (via Gradle configurations), where the compiled class files are placed. Significantly, the files that form a source set don’t have to be located in the same directory! The task is an instance of Delete and you can change what directory it deletes by setting its dir property. If the base manifest and the merged manifest both define values for the same key, the merged manifest wins by default. Speaking of writeTo(), you can use that to easily write a manifest to disk at any time, like so: The Java Library Plugin provides a javadoc task of type Javadoc, that will generate standard Javadocs for all your production code, i.e. There is no core support for running your web application directly from the build, but we do recommend that you try the Gretty community plugin, which provides an embedded Servlet container. src/main/java contains the Java source code. If you want to create an 'uber' (AKA 'fat') JAR, then you can use a task definition like this: See Jar for more details on the configuration options available to you. Before we manually create a Java project and prepare it for build, we need to install Gradle. This target directory will also be included in the runtime classpath of the tests. What if you don’t want to override the convention, but simply want to add an extra source directory, perhaps one that contains some third-party source code you want to keep separate? Beyond core Gradle, there are other great plugins for more JVM languages! You can see a complete example for setting up integration tests in the Java testing chapter. Take a look at the following directory structure. The project version is also used in archive names by default. You will also see later how to adjust the build for libraries, applications, web apps and enterprise apps. You can learn more about this task and related topics in the Java testing chapter. This single line in the build configuration brings a significant amount of power. Compiling both your production and test code can be trivially easy if you follow the conventions: Put your production source code under the src/main/java directory, Put your test source code under src/test/java, Declare your production compile dependencies in the compileOnly or implementation configurations (see previous section), Declare your test compile dependencies in the testCompileOnly or testImplementation configurations, Run the compileJava task for the production code and compileTestJava for the tests. The syntax is similar: Crucially, we’re using the method srcDir() here to append a directory path, whereas setting the srcDirs property replaces any existing values. Gradle uses a convention-over-configuration approach to building JVM-based projects that borrows several conventions from Apache Maven. By default, Gradle will compile Java code to the language level of the JVM running Gradle. apply plugin: 'java'. The example in this section use the Java Library Plugin. These plugins create a dependency between Groovy/Scala compilation and Java compilation (of source code in the java folder of a source set). The conventional directory structure won’t work, so you need to tell Gradle where to find the source files. As far as configurations go, the main ones of interest are: compileOnly — for dependencies that are necessary to compile your production code but shouldn’t be part of the runtime classpath, implementation (supersedes compile) — used for compilation and runtime, runtimeOnly (supersedes runtime) — only used at runtime, not for compilation, testCompileOnly — same as compileOnly except it’s for the tests, testImplementation — test equivalent of implementation, testRuntimeOnly — test equivalent of runtimeOnly. Enabling Java feature preview, Example 16. it determines the version of byte code the compiler generates. Gradle manages this distinction via the Java Library Plugin, which introduces an api configuration in addition to the implementation one covered in this chapter. Usually, a Java project has a version and a target JRE on which it is compiled. All of this is possible through the use of directory properties. Using a custom doclet with Javadoc, Example 14. The following example demonstrates how to set attributes in the JAR’s manifest: See Manifest for the configuration options it provides. Projects typically use this source set for unit tests, but you can also use it for integration, acceptance and other types of test if you wish. Kotlin. The support comes via the Java Platform plugin, which sets up the different configurations and publication components. Applying the Java Library Plugin, Figure 1. This adds conventions and a task for building EAR files. This plugin is the exception as it does not apply the Java Plugin. There are several options for customization, as you’ll see next. You can set up other source sets that fulfil different roles in the same way. Configure a project to publish Javadoc and sources, Example 8. When ever you add a plugin to your build it assume a certain setup of your Java project (similar to Maven). And note that you need to use archiveClassifier rather than archiveAppendix here for correct publication of the JAR. Core Gradle, though, only directly supports traditional Servlet-based web applications deployed as WAR files. If the artifact is an executable Java application, the MANIFEST.MF file must be aware of the class with the main method. Setup the Java Project. The following diagram shows how the source set fits in with this task: As before, the shaded boxes represent properties of the source set, which in this case comprises the locations of the resource files and where they are copied to. Here’s an example that does just that: You don’t have to create a configuration for this, but it’s an elegant way to handle dependencies that are required for a unique purpose. Take a look at the following code for build.gradle file. Java projects typically include resources other than source files, such as properties files, that may need processing — for example by replacing tokens within the files — and packaging within the final JAR. For example, integration tests are typically part of the project because they test the code in main. For example, to tell Gradle that your project requires version 3.6.7 of Hibernate Core to compile and run your production code, and that you want to download the library from the Maven Central repository, you can use the following fragment: The Gradle terminology for the three elements is as follows: Repository (ex: mavenCentral()) — where to look for the modules you declare as dependencies, Configuration (ex: implementation) — a named collection of dependencies, grouped together for a specific goal such as compiling or running a module — a more flexible form of Maven scopes, Module coordinate (ex: org.hibernate:hibernate-core-3.6.7.Final) — the ID of the dependency, usually in the form '::' (or '::' in Maven terminology). The question then becomes: when should you define a custom source set? Either way, the Java Library Plugin adds a specific Copy task for each source set that handles the processing of its associated resources. The Application Plugin solves the command line aspect by creating a distribution that includes the production JAR, its dependencies and launch scripts Unix-like and Windows systems. If the types from a dependency appear in public fields or methods of your library’s public classes, then that dependency is exposed via your library’s public API and should therefore be added to the api configuration. Most of the compiler options are accessible through the corresponding task, such as compileJava and compileTestJava. The Java Library Plugin handles this by automatically creating a dedicated task for each defined source set called processSourceSetResources (or processResources for the main source set). All of the specific JVM plugins are built on top of the Java Plugin. If using Java 9+, leveraging the release flag might be an easier solution, see above. apply plugin: 'java' Java Default Project Layout This chapter explains about how to build a java project using Gradle build file. One reason for doing so is to share manifest information between JARs. Test and the JavaExec task to use the correct java executable. In this section, we will focus on the bare bones provided by the Java Library Plugin. Otherwise, the dependency is an internal implementation detail and should be added to implementation. Java 5 and below are not supported. Copy the below given java code into file and store into consumerbanking\src\test\java\com\bank directory. If your answer to both 3 and either one of the others is yes, then a custom source set is probably the right approach. By entering your email, you agree to our Terms and Privacy Policy, including receipt of emails. It maps in the Maven world to a BOM. Dependency management is a big topic, so we will focus on the basics for Java projects here. Note that the merge is done lazily, either when generating the JAR or when Manifest.writeTo() or Manifest.getEffectiveManifest() are called. The resulting output is shown: Scala and Copy the below given code into build.gradle file and placed into consumerbanking\ directory. The examples above only illustrated concepts provided by this base plugin and shared with all JVM plugins. After that, let's navigate to the project folder and create sub-folders: > mkdir src/main/java/employee. To answer that question, consider whether the sources: Need to be compiled with a unique classpath, Generate classes that are handled differently from the main and test ones. Defines the minimum JVM version your code should run on, i.e. If you’re unsure whether to create a custom source set or not, then go ahead and do so. Creating a Java uber or fat JAR, Example 11. The version string is important for tracking the progression of the project. It is now deprecated, and will issue warnings when used, because it doesn’t distinguish between dependencies that impact the public API of a Java library project and those that don’t. You’ll learn more about source sets and the features they provide in: The vast majority of Java projects rely on libraries, so managing a project’s dependencies is an important part of building a Java project. When adding the --type parameter with java-library as value, a java project structure is created and the build.gradle file contains a certain Java template with Junit. In addition, you can explore a basic, practical sample of building a Java library. Dependencies section is for providing information about external dependencies. Processing non-source files for a source set, Example 3. Gradle’s WriteProperties task generates exactly the same output byte-for-byte if none of the properties have changed. Java applications packaged as a JAR aren’t set up for easy launching from the command line or a desktop environment. Some common scenarios that require further reading include: Defining a custom Maven- or Ivy-compatible repository, Using dependencies from a local filesystem directory, Declaring dependencies with changing (e.g. You can find a more comprehensive glossary of dependency management terms here. You do that via source set configuration. The toolchain options protects against problems with the project being built with different Java versions. In particular, it uses the same default directory structure for source files and resources, and it works with Maven-compatible repositories. You’ll use the gradle build task frequently. These tasks are of type JavaCompile, so read the task reference for an up-to-date and comprehensive list of the options. take a look into the following directory structre. Use the following line in build.gradle file. It is however possible to override some compiler and execution options at the task level. This task simply deletes everything in the $buildDir directory, hence why you should always put files generated by the build in there. These options can be set per JavaCompile task, or on the java { } extension for all compile tasks, using properties with the same names. However the described features are shared by all JVM plugins. This option takes precedence over the properties described below. To compile and execute the above script use the below given commands. That means the dependency metadata published with the JAR file — usually in the form of a Maven POM —  is crucial. If a publishing plugin is used, these tasks will automatically run during publishing or can be called directly. Although the properties in the example are optional, we recommend that you specify them in your projects. Example 1. whatever source is in the main source set. This is a common convention in Gradle: setting a property replaces values, while the corresponding method appends values. Run gradle tasks again, and you see new tasks added to the list, including tasks for building the project, creating JavaDoc, and running tests. In particular, consumers of your library should be able to distinguish between two different types of dependencies: those that are only required to compile your library and those that are also required to compile the consumer. You can see how these relate to one another in this diagram: The shaded boxes represent properties of the source set itself. The main idea is that source files and resources are often logically grouped by type, such as application code, unit tests and integration tests. You can learn more about the importance of this distinction in Building Java libraries. You can see a basic example of building a Java application in the corresponding sample. You can use one of the publishing plugins to publish the JARs created by a Java project: Each instance of the Jar, War and Ear tasks has a manifest property that allows you to customize the MANIFEST.MF file that goes into the corresponding archive. Historical options for the Java compiler remain available: Defines which language version of Java your source files should be treated as. But it offers an init task to create the structure of a new Gradle project. SourceSets can be used to specify a different project structure. Java, Source sets and Java compilation, Figure 2. In the following example, the source manifests are all text files except for sharedManifest, which is the Manifest object from the previous example: Manifests are merged in the order they are declared in the from statement. The Java Library Plugin has historically used the compile configuration for dependencies that are required to both compile and run a project’s production code. Groovy, Note that srcDirs and srcDir() are both on SourceDirectorySet. Read on to understand which plugins fits which project type, as it is recommended to pick a specific plugin instead of applying the Java Plugin directly. Create a directory structure as shown in the below screenshot. In the repositories section, it defines where to find the dependencies. Other common scenarios are less clear cut and may have better solutions. SNAPSHOT) and dynamic (range) versions, Declaring a sibling project as a dependency, Controlling transitive dependencies and their versions, Testing your fixes to a 3rd-party dependency via composite builds (a better alternative to publishing to and consuming from Maven Local). To use Java 6 or Java 7, the following tasks need to be configured: JavaCompile task to fork and use the correct Java home, Javadoc task to use the correct javadoc executable. See the plugin’s chapter for more details, but here’s a quick summary of what you get: assemble creates ZIP and TAR distributions of the application containing everything needed to run it, A run task that starts the application from the build (for easy testing), Shell and Windows Batch scripts to start the application. Gradle does not yet support multiple project templates. Libraries, applications, web applications and enterprise applications all have differing requirements. Since processResources is an instance of the Copy task, you can perform any of the processing described in the Working With Files chapter. Gradle already makes this scenario part of its Java convention, but what if you have other sets of sources? Gradle’s Java support was the first to introduce a new concept for building source-based projects: source sets. This is done by the war task, which effectively replaces the jar task — although that task remains — and is attached to the assemble lifecycle task. You can fully customize the merge behavior by adding eachEntry actions in which you have access to a ManifestMergeDetails instance for each entry of the resulting manifest. See the plugin’s chapter for more details and configuration options. The platform has no source and no artifact of its own. You can learn more about these and how they relate to one another in the plugin reference chapter. That’s why you typically need to create your own Test tasks for things like integration and acceptance tests if they can’t be included with the test source set. Jcenter is for resolving your dependencies. You can unsubscribe at any time. The alternative approach is to define a new source set for each of your other test types, which is typically done for one or both of the following reasons: You want to keep the tests separate from one another for aesthetics and manageability, The different test types require different compilation or runtime classpaths or some other difference in setup. To start the build, type the following command on the command line. As a consequence, we strongly recommend you not to publish libraries compiled with preview features and restrict the use of feature previews to toy projects. Declaring custom source directories, Example 4. We have only scratched the surface here, so we recommend that you read the dedicated dependency management chapters once you’re comfortable with the basics of building Java projects with Gradle.

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