, He often visited the temple of Jupiter and made offerings there. Scipio's great-grandfather, Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, and grandfather Lucius Cornelius Scipio, had both been consuls and censors. na 8 maanden tot uithongering en zelfmoord van de bevolking en totale verwoesting van de stad, waarmee het laatste verzet op het Iberisch Schiereiland gebroken was. This may have been because Hannibal, in the service of Antiochus III of Syria, might have come to Carthage to gather support for a new attack on Italy. This broke the back of Hasdrubal's army and routed his forces—an impressive feat for the young Roman versus the veteran Carthaginian general. ", Scipio is considered by many to be one of Rome's greatest generals; he never lost a battle. Als censor in 142 v.Chr. Scipio was delighted with the turn which the speaker had with true Carthaginian adroitness given to his answer, and the unexpected flattery it conveyed, because Hannibal had set him apart from the ordinary run of military captains as an incomparable commander. Milton mentions Scipio in Book 9 of Paradise Lost and in Book 3 of Paradise Regained. Scipio's army then marched towards Hannibal's veterans, who had not yet taken part in the battle. ; † 129 v. On the other hand, one of Hannibal's principal biographers, Theodore Ayrault Dodge, goes so far as to suggest that this attack was out of cowardice and spares no more than a page upon the event in total, despite the fact that it secured the siege of Utica and effectively put Syphax out of the war. However, it is not certain that he was actually buried at Liternum, and no contemporary accounts of his death or funeral exist. This man's fashion lasted until the time of emperor Hadrian and then was revived again by Constantine the Great. The possibility exists that he was returned to Rome and laid to rest there in a still undiscovered crypt. meldde hij zich vrijwillig aan voor krijgsdienst in Hispania, net zoals zijn grootvader Scipio Africanus Maior. Rather than arranging his forces in the traditional manipular lines, which put the hastati, principes, and triarii in succeeding lines parallel to the enemy's line, Scipio instead put the maniples in lines perpendicular to the enemy, a stratagem designed to counter the war elephants. It is said that he ordered an inscription on his tomb: Ingrata patria, ne ossa quidem habebis ("ungrateful fatherland, you will not even have my bones"). He died probably in 183 BC (the actual year and date of his death is unknown) aged about 53. Daar hadden de Romeinen zware verliezen geleden tegen de Iberiërs. Chr. Een soortgelijke oorlog vocht hij in Hispania. The Gracchi brothers championed land redistribution in order to boost the ranks of potential Roman soldiers, as Roman soldiers needed to own land to be enfranchised for service in the legions and the number of Roman land owners was withering. Disillusioned by the ingratitude of his peers, Scipio left Rome and retired from public life at his villa in Liternum. De belegering van de noordelijke stad Numantia leidde in 133 v.Chr. As a result, contemporary accounts of his life, particularly his childhood and youth, are virtually non-existent. In the year 199 BC, Scipio was elected Censor and for some years afterwards he lived quietly and took no part in politics. While the security of Rome was guaranteed by demands such as the surrender of the fleet, and a lasting tribute was to be paid, the strictures were sufficiently light for Carthage to regain its full prosperity. Scipio was welcomed back to Rome in triumph with the agnomen of Africanus. ), meist Scipio Aemilianus oder „der jüngere Scipio“ zur Unterscheidung vom älteren Scipio Africanus genannt, war ein römischer Feldherr und Staatsmann, der vor allem für die erfolgreiche Belagerung und anschließende Zerstörung Karthagos bekannt ist. Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus minor Numantinus (* 185 v. Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due largely to Roman distrust of the Carthaginians as a result of the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, the breach of protocols which ended the First Punic War (known as Punic Faith), and a perceived breach in contemporary military etiquette due to Hannibal's numerous ambushes. Drie jaar later wist hij zich succesvol te verzetten tegen de beschuldigingen van hoogverraad. , Scipio joined the Roman struggle against Carthage in the first year of the Second Punic War when his father was consul. The irony of Dodge's accusations of Scipio's cowardice is that the attack showed traces of Hannibal's penchant for ambush. The Roman infantry was greatly rattled by the elephants, but Massinissa's Numidian and Laelius' Roman cavalry began to drive the opposing cavalry off the field. His defeat of Hannibal at Zama paved the way for Carthage's eventual destruction in 146 BC. In addition, the Sicilian garrison also contained many of the troops who had participated in the Sicilian campaigns of Marcus Claudius Marcellus. Scipio feared that the armies of Mago and Gisco would enter the field and surround his small army. This suggests that it was known that Africanus was not buried inside Rome, and it is possible that his sarcophagus did indeed resemble an altar (although there is no direct evidence for this), given that that of the "founder" of the Scipiones, Scipio Barbatus, which can be found in pride of place in the family tomb, is altar-like in style. Much historical criticism has been levelled at his inability to effectively pursue Hasdrubal, who would eventually cross the Alps only to be defeated by Gaius Claudius Nero at the Battle of the Metaurus. Scipio features as a playable character, represented by a cataphract, in the Battle of Zama in Age of Empires: The Rise of Rome. Historians are roughly equal in their praise and condemnation for this act. Mere days after Hasdrubal's defeat, Mago and Gisgo were able to converge in front of the Roman positions, bringing into question what would have happened had Scipio pursued Hasdrubal. Archaeology has not yet determined the resting place of Scipio Africanus. Hannibal did have a trained pool of soldiers who had fought in Italy, as well as eighty war elephants. 'In that case,' replied Hannibal, 'I should say that I surpassed Alexander and Pyrrhus, and all other commanders in the world.' Others cite the Roman soldiers' appetite for plunder as preventing him from rallying in pursuit. Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Numantinus, kortweg bekend als Scipio Aemilianus (185 v.Chr.-129 v.Chr.) The Carthaginians were also preoccupied with revolts in Africa. Valerius Maximus is hostile to Scipio Africanus in other matters such as his frequent visits to the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which Maximus saw as "fake religion. The people crowded round him and followed him to the Capitol, where they offered thanks to the gods and begged them to give Rome more citizens like Scipio Africanus. When the Carthaginian elephants charged, they found well laid traps before the Roman position and were greeted by Roman trumpeters, which drove many back out of confusion and fear.  The affair, if it lasted from circa 191 BC to Scipio's death 183 BC, might have resulted in issue (not mentioned); what is mentioned is that the girl was freed by Aemilia Paulla after Scipio's death and married to one of his freedmen. . During the Battle of Ticinus, he saved his father's life by "charging the encircling force alone with reckless daring. 1st cent. Hannibal could boast a strength of around forty thousand: 36,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry, compared to Scipio's 29,000 infantry and 6,100 cavalry. Hasdrubal had not noticed Scipio's hidden reserves of cavalry moving behind enemy lines, and a Roman cavalry charge created a double envelopment on either flank led by cavalry commander Gaius Laelius and Scipio himself. ", Metellus Scipio, a descendant of Scipio, commanded legions against Julius Caesar in Africa until his defeat at the Battle of Thapsus in 49 BC. Op slechts 17-jarige leeftijd vocht hij al aan de zijde van zijn vader Aemilius Paulus in de Slag bij Pydna in 168 v.Chr., die het lot van Macedonia bezegelde en Noord-Griekenland onderwierp aan Rome. Scipio himself was subsequently (185 BC) accused of having been bribed by Antiochus. His cousin also won the election.. The victory was one of the feats that earned him the agnomen he is best known for: Africanus. The Roman Senate sent a commission of inquiry to Sicily and found Scipio at the head of a well-equipped and trained fleet and army. Metellus Scipio was the last Scipio to distinguish himself militarily or politically. Als consul in 134 v.Chr. The Romans had for a long time used service in Sicily as a punishment, with the result that the garrison in Sicily contained survivors from many of the greatest Roman military fiascos in the war, such as the Battle of Cannae. In this way, Scipio created a trained nucleus of cavalry for his African campaign. It is certainly true that some Romans of the day viewed Cato as a representative of the old Romans, and Scipio and his like as Graecophiles). His strategy, so oft reliant upon subtle stratagems, was simple: a massive forward attack by the war elephants would create gaps in the Roman lines, which would be exploited by the infantry, supported by the cavalry. Slechts een jaar na zijn aankomst wist hij de sterke stad in te nemen, waarmee een eind kwam aan een groot rijk dat meer dan een eeuw lang de bitterste rivaal van Rome was geweest en honderden jaren lang de westelijke Middellandse Zee had gedomineerd. In addition, a large portion of Rome's cavalry were allies of questionable loyalty, or noble equites exempting themselves from being lowly foot soldiers. . Livy describes this belief as it was perceived then, without offering his opinion as to its veracity. Scipio intended to go to Africa, but due to the envy of others in the Senate, he was not given any additional troops beyond the Sicilian garrison. The couple had no children, and Sempronia grew to hate her husband after he condoned the murder of her brother Tiberius in 132 BC. Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal had meanwhile marched for Italy, and in 206 BC Scipio himself, having secured the Roman occupation of Hispania by the capture of Gades, gave up his command and returned to Rome. Some of the Roman Senate, championed by Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator ("the Delayer"), opposed the mission. In the 1983 BBC mini-series The Cleopatras, Scipio is portrayed by Geoffrey Whitehead. Scipio realized that the Carthaginian forces—especially the superior Numidian cavalry—would prove decisive against the largely infantry forces of the Roman legions. At a later date, some Roman emperors claimed descent from Scipio Africanus. Scipio refused to accept demands for him to become perpetual consul and dictator. A.D., Valerius Maximus, Livy, 35.14 from mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ Plutarch also recounts this conversation in Life of Titus Flamininus, 21.3–4, "Giulio Licinio | The Continence of Scipio | NG643.2 | The National Gallery, London", "Raphael | An Allegory ('Vision of a Knight') | NG213 | The National Gallery, London", "How to get good generals in Centurion: Defender of Rome? With the permission from the commissioners, Scipio sailed in 204 BC and landed near Utica. Scipio's objective was, therefore, to quickly eliminate one of the armies to give him the luxury of dealing with the other two piecemeal. In being a successful general who demanded lands for his soldiers, Scipio may have led the way for later generals such as Gaius Marius and Julius Caesar. This son-in-law was a distinguished Roman in his own right. After his rapid success in conquering Hispania, and with the idea of striking a blow at Carthage in Africa, Scipio paid a short visit to the Numidian princes Syphax and Massinissa.  The two generals met on a plain between Carthage and Utica on October 19, 202 BC, at the final Battle of Zama. Scipio pressed the Senate for permission to cross into Africa. Shortly before Italy's invasion of Ethiopia, Benito Mussolini commissioned an epic film depicting the exploits of Scipio. Charging the rear of Hannibal's army, they caused what many historians have called the "Roman Cannae". In 187 BC, he was tried in a show trial alongside his brother for bribes they supposedly received from King Antiochos III during the Roman–Seleucid War. The two brothers brought the war to a conclusion by a decisive victory at Magnesia in the same year. Scipio was astonished by her beauty but discovered that the woman was betrothed to a Celtiberian chieftain named Allucius. In 193 BC, Scipio was one of the commissioners sent to Africa to settle a dispute between Massinissa and the Carthaginians, which the commission did not achieve. Hannibal arranged his infantry in three phalangial lines designed to overlap the Roman lines. Scipio's only descendants living through the late Republican period were the descendants of his two daughters, his sons having died without legitimate surviving issue. The resulting infantry clash was fierce and bloody, with neither side achieving local superiority. The Tomb of the Scipios has been discovered and is open to the public, but it is not believed that Scipio Africanus was interred there. Scipio appears or is mentioned in passing in Cicero's De Republica and De Amicitia, and in Silius Italicus' Punica (Cicero was mentored by prominent Romans whose ancestors had been associated with Scipio). In 205 BC, Scipio was unanimously elected to consulship at the age of 31. His main achievements were during the Second Punic War. Als een senator te veel kinderen had was het moeilijk voor hem om zijn zoons goede financiële ondersteuning te geven in een eventuele politieke carrière. The Roman infantry had driven off the two front lines of the Carthaginian army, and in the respite took an opportunity to drink water. Having served with these men at Cannae, Scipio was well aware that their disgrace was through no fault of their own. Scipio is also referenced in the Italian national anthem. was een Romeins militair en politicus. Scipione l'africano, written by Carmine Gallone, won the Mussolini Cup for the greatest Italian film at the 1937 Venice Film Festival. In the 2006 television film Hannibal, he is portrayed by British actor Shaun Dingwall, notably at the battles of Cannae and Zama. toch, mede dankzij zijn familiegeschiedenis: de Aemilii Pauli en de Cornelii Scipiones stonden bekend als kundige generaals en staatslieden. The battle was decided by a determined Roman infantry charge up the centre of the Carthaginian position. He conquered the Carthaginian territory of Iberia for Rome, although the two Iberian provinces were not fully pacified for a couple of centuries. This account is only found in Valerius Maximus (Memorable Deeds and Sayings 6.7.1–3. He and his descendants all became increasingly conservative, in stark contrast to the father and grandfathers.  The Continence of Scipio, depicting his clemency and sexual restraint after the fall of Carthago Nova, was an even more popular subject. In addition to supplying the Numidian cavalry (on which see the Battle of Cannae), Numidia operated as a buffer for vulnerable Carthage. Later werd hij geadopteerd door Publius Cornelius Scipio, de oudste zoon van Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus maior, en van hem nam hij het cognomen Scipio over.  In 209 BC, Scipio fought his first set piece battle, driving back Hasdrubal Barca from his position at Baecula on the upper Guadalquivir. nam Aemilianus het commando op zich en trainde enkele maanden lang het leger totdat het in conditie was voor de campagne. In the film, Maximus ruins the re-enactment by leading the gladiators, who are meant to represent Hannibal's forces, to victory over Scipio's legionaries. Scipio did not introduce Greek ideas or art to the Romans, but his ardent support for the Greek way of life coupled with his own charisma had its inevitable impact. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 14 jul 2020 om 15:13. Scipio figures prominently in Livy's "Ab urbe condita libri" and is named as an example of a warrior at the end of Book III of Lucretius' De rerum natura. His interest in a Graecophile lifestyle had tremendous influence on the Roman elite; more than a century later, even the conservative Cato Uticensis (great-grandson of the elder Cato) espoused Greek philosophy. Publius Cornelius Scipio.  With Scipio's consent, Hannibal was allowed to become the civic leader of Carthage, which the Cato family did not forget. 1, p. 267. His main achievements were during the Second Punic War. The granddaughter of Gaius Gracchus, Fulvia, was also unusually prominent for a Roman woman in the affairs of the late republic, marrying Publius Clodius, Gaius Curio and Mark Antony in turn. Scipio Africanus's eldest grandson Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio became consul in 138, murdered his own cousin Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (163–132 BC) in 132. Scipio supported land distribution for his veterans in a tradition harking back to the earliest days of the Republic, yet his actions were seen as somewhat radical by conservatives. Scipio retired to his country seat at Liternum on the coast of Campania. Het jaar daarop trad hij op als onderhandelaar tussen de Numidische koning Massinissa en de Carthagers, die zich, vijftig jaar na het einde van de Tweede Punische Oorlog, hersteld hadden en de bedreigingen van Massinissa uiteindelijk beantwoordden met geweld.  The Tribunate of the Plebs objected to his candidacy, saying that he could not be allowed to stand because he had not yet reached the legal age. Scipio assented to their exemption from service providing they pay for a horse, equipment, and a replacement rider for the Roman army. They ultimately dethroned Syphax, and ensured Prince Masinissa's coronation as King of the Numidians. Despite this resistance, Scipio gathered resources from clients and supporters in Rome and among the Italian communities; this allowed him to muster a volunteer force of 30 warships and 7000 men.. Polybius suggested that people had only said that Scipio had supernatural powers because they had not appreciated the natural mental gifts which facilitated Scipio's achievements.. Advocates for Hannibal often claim that his army was mostly Italians pressed into service from southern Italy and that most of his elite veterans (and certainly cavalry) were spent. Anders dan Scipio Africanus was Aemilianus politiek capabel genoeg om de beschuldigingen te weerleggen. moderation] of Scipio' was a stock motif in exemplary literature and art, as was the 'Dream of Scipio', portraying his allegorical choice between Virtue and Luxury. Carthage, and especially Hannibal himself, had long relied upon these superb natural horsemen, who would now fight for Rome against Carthage.  As Lucius was in the act of producing his account-books, his brother wrested them from his hands, tore them in pieces, and flung them on the floor of the Senate house. Hiervoor kreeg hij het agnomen Numantinus. In 211 BC, both Scipio's father, Publius Scipio, and uncle, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, were killed at the Battle of the Upper Baetis in Spain against Hannibal's brother, Hasdrubal Barca. Womanly virtue. Adoptie was niet ongebruikelijk in het oude Rome. Scipio's humanitarian conduct toward prisoners and hostages in Hispania helped in portraying the Romans as liberators as opposed to conquerors. He was the eldest son of the consul Publius Cornelius Scipio by his wife Pomponia, daughter of plebeian consul Manius Pomponius Matho. Roman losses are uncertain but may have been considerable in light of an effort by the infantry to scale an elevation defended by Carthaginian light infantry. Als consul belegerde hij Carthago met succes en bracht de oorlog met de Numantiërs tot een einde. At the same time, Hannibal Barca and his army were recalled to Carthage, and despite the moderate terms offered to Carthage by Scipio, Carthage suddenly suspended negotiations and again prepared for war. , Scipio offered himself as a candidate for aedilis curulis in 213 BC alongside his cousin Marcus Cornelius Cethegus. However, a grandson (adopted into the plebeian-noble Caecilii Metelli) became the Metellus Scipio who allied himself with Pompey the Great and Cato the Younger, and who opposed Julius Caesar.  This high-handed act shamed the prosecution, and it appears that the case against Lucius was dismissed, though Lucius would again be prosecuted, and this time convicted, after the death of Scipio. Raphael's painting Vision of a Knight is thought to be a depiction of Scipio. He refused the many further honours which the people would have thrust upon him such as Consul for life and Dictator. However, Seneca (Epistle 86.1), having moved into the villa at Liternum that used to belong to Scipio Africanus, says that he has done "reverence to his [Africanus'] spirit and to an altar which I am inclined to think is the tomb of that great warrior". Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Numantinus (185-129 vC), zoon van Aemilius Paullus en adoptiefzoon van Scipio.In 168 streed hij aan de zijde van zijn vader bij Pydna.In Spanje, waar hij in 151 als krijgstribuun diende, viel hij op door persoonlijke moed. Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Numantinus, kortweg bekend als Scipio Aemilianus (185 v.Chr.-129 v.Chr.) Scipio landed at the mouth of the Ebro and was able to surprise and capture Carthago Nova (New Carthage), the headquarters of the Carthaginian power in Hispania. Scipio managed to receive support from both Syphax and Massinissa. Scipio is also mentioned in Machiavelli's work The Prince (Chapter XVII "Concerning Cruelty And Clemency, And Whether It Is Better To Be Loved Than Feared").  It is supposedly in gratitude for this act that Scipio betrothed his youngest daughter Cornelia Africana Minor (then aged about 5) to Gracchus, several decades her senior (however, no contemporaneous references to this event exist; what is known is that Gracchus did marry Cornelia, aged about 18, in 172 BC). The relatives of Scipio continued to dominate the republic for a couple of generations. "The story that Scipio won election both for himself and his brother is intrinsically improbable, and despite the authority of Polybius (10.4–5), has been generally rejected." Voor zijn overwinning kreeg hij persoonlijk het agnomen Africanus. 'The Continence [i.e. In Rome leidde hij de conservatieve oppositie tegen de Gracchi en stond hij bekend om zijn conservatisme, redenaarskunst en om zijn invloedrijke en intellectuele vriendengroep. The eldest child and only surviving daughter, Sempronia, was married to her mother's first cousin (and her own cousin by adoption) Scipio Aemilianus Africanus. Aemilia Paulla had unusual freedom and wealth for a patrician married woman, and she was an important role model for many younger Roman women, just as her youngest daughter Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi, would be an important role model for many Late Republican Roman noblewomen, including allegedly the mother of Julius Caesar. Now deserted by its allies and surrounded by a veteran and undefeated Roman army, Carthage began opening diplomatic channels for negotiation.
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