wo liegt venezuela

La culture autochtone est aujourd'hui présente dans la musique à travers certains instruments, entre autres le cameo, un tambour, et le botuto, une sorte de trompette. Coordinates: 7°N 65°W / 7°N 65°W / 7; -65. [317] Millions of Colombians, as well as Middle Eastern and Haitian populations would continue immigrating to Venezuela into the early 21st century. The recovery of oil prices after 2001 boosted the Venezuelan economy and facilitated social spending. Le Venezuela est un pays en développement, classé 59e pour le produit intérieur brut par habitant par le FMI. [285], By late-2016 and into 2017, Venezuelans had to search for food on a daily basis, occasionally resorting to eating wild fruit or garbage, wait in lines for hours and sometimes settle without having certain products. Une nouvelle dévaluation a lieu en 2013 et en 2014, le président Maduro substitue au système existant un système d'accès aux devises sous formes d'enchères complexes qui ne suffit pas à satisfaire la demande croissante de la population pour les monnaies étrangères, stimulée par l'inflation galopante et le recours important aux importations pour tous types de produits. Venezuela is further subdivided into 335 municipalities (municipios); these are subdivided into over one thousand parishes (parroquias). The highest temperature recorded was 42 °C (108 °F) in Machiques,[155] and the lowest temperature recorded was −11 °C (12 °F), it has been reported from an uninhabited high altitude at Páramo de Piedras Blancas (Mérida state),[156] even though no official reports exist, lower temperatures in the mountains of the Sierra Nevada de Mérida are known. [311][312][313] These influences on Venezuela have led to the nation being called the 8th island of the Canaries. »[18]. "Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela" redirects here. Elle a été approuvée par référendum le 15 décembre 1999 malgré une importante abstention (celle-ci étant sans doute expliquée par la plus grande catastrophe naturelle de l'histoire du pays, la tragédie de Vargas du 15 décembre 1999, au bilan très lourd). A tribunal convened in Paris in 1898 to decide the issue and in 1899 awarded the bulk of the disputed territory to British Guiana.[58]. [62], During the years of Pérez Jiménez's administration, the State intervened in areas of the economy that were traditionally carried out by private companies. Guyana Entfernung von Venezuela … [80][81][82][83][84] These devaluations have done little to improve the situation of the Venezuelan people who rely on imported products or locally produced products that depend on imported inputs while dollar-denominated oil sales account for the vast majority of Venezuela's exports. The coup installed chamber of commerce leader. [317][318][319] During the 1970s, while experiencing an oil-export boom, Venezuela received millions of immigrants from Ecuador, Colombia, and the Dominican Republic. [144], In August 2019, United States President Donald Trump signed an executive order to impose a total economic embargo against Venezuela. [citation needed], The country can be further divided into ten geographical areas, some corresponding to climatic and biogeographical regions. [296] The electricity sector in Venezuela is one of the few to rely primarily on hydropower, and includes the Guri Dam, one of the largest in the world. Plusieurs organisations internationales et de nombreux analystes attribuent partiellement la crise économique que vit le Venezuela aux sanctions économiques et diplomatiques imposées par les États-Unis et l'Union européenne. One of his decisions was to force stores and their warehouses to sell all of their products, which led to even more shortages in the future. A devastating earthquake that struck Caracas in 1812, together with the rebellion of the Venezuelan llaneros, helped bring down the republic. [190], Venezuela is especially dangerous for foreign travelers and investors who are visiting. Navigazione. Le caractère souvent conflictuel des relations entre le gouvernement et l'opposition culmine avec une tentative de coup d’État en avril 2002[80] et à des manifestations de masse dans les années 2010. They also stored water in tanks. Venezuela (/ ˌ v ɛ n ə ˈ z w eɪ l ə /; American Spanish: [beneˈswela] ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. Nachbarländer: Guyana, Brasilien, Kolumbien. ", This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 08:59. The Buddhist community is made up mainly of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean people. En dépit des richesses naturelles du pays, Chavez laisse un secteur privé et un tissu industriel atrophiés, un large clientélisme, une inflation très importante et une population confrontée à des pénuries alimentaires chroniques[22]. [368] Teresa Carreño was a world-famous 19th century piano virtuoso. On 14 May 2016, constitutional guarantees were in fact suspended when Maduro decreed the extension of the economic emergency decree for another 60 days and declared a State of Emergency,[194] which is a clear violation of the Constitution of Venezuela[195] in the Article 338th: "The approval of the extension of States of emergency corresponds to the National Assembly." [51], Sucre, who won many battles for Bolívar, went on to liberate Ecuador and later become the second president of Bolivia. Then, U.S. president Grover Cleveland adopted a broad interpretation of the doctrine that did not just simply forbid new European colonies, but declared an American interest in any matter within the hemisphere. Les compagnies multinationales arrivent en 1922. [111] In the 2015 Venezuelan parliamentary election, the opposition gained a majority. Venezuela manufactures and exports heavy industry products such as steel, aluminium and cement, with production concentrated around Ciudad Guayana, near the Guri Dam, one of the largest in the world and the provider of about three-quarters of Venezuela's electricity. Administered by the Royal Audiencia of Santo Domingo from the early 16th century, most of Venezuela became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the early 18th century, and was then reorganized as an autonomous Captaincy General starting in 1777. Other rivers worth mentioning are the Apure, Arauca, Caura, Meta, Barima, Portuguesa, Ventuari and Zulia, among others. L’émigration est en augmentation depuis l’arrivée au pouvoir de Nicolás Maduro[68]. Most indigenous peoples are concentrated in eight states along Venezuela's borders with Brazil, Guyana, and Colombia, and the majority groups are the Wayuu (west), the Warao (east), the Yanomami (south), and the Pemon (southeast). [224] The country's body count of the previous decade mimics that of the Iraq War and in some instances had more civilian deaths even though the country is at peacetime. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America;[14][15] the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north, especially in the capital Caracas, which is also the largest city. [299] In the 1990s PDVSA became more independent from the government and presided over an apertura (opening) in which it invited in foreign investment. [337], Venezuela has a national universal health care system. Esta en X grados. [190] The PSUV government used this violation to suspend several elected opponents,[191] ignoring again the Constitution of Venezuela. Supreme Court president Luisa Estela Morales said in December 2009 that Venezuela had moved away from "a rigid division of powers" toward a system characterized by "intense coordination" between the branches of government. [134][135][136][137] Other countries including Cuba, China, Russia, Turkey, and Iran have continued to recognize Maduro as president,[138][139] although China, facing financial pressure over its position, has reportedly begun hedging its position by decreasing loans given, cancelling joint ventures, and signaling willingness to work with all parties. Spanish influences can be seen in the country's architecture, music, religion, and language. It prompted an economic boom that lasted into the 1980s; by 1935, Venezuela's per capita gross domestic product was Latin America's highest. [51] On 24 July 1823, José Prudencio Padilla and Rafael Urdaneta helped seal Venezuelan independence with their victory in the Battle of Lake Maracaibo. Du fait de l'absence de réformes économiques, la situation du pays se tend immédiatement dès que le cours du baril s'effondre à partir de 2008[24]. Près de cinq millions d'habitants résident dans la métropole. La musique de la région des Llanos (música llanera), que l'on retrouve dans d'autres pays hispano-américains est un exemple de musique née à l'époque de la colonie espagnole. The discovery of massive oil deposits in Lake Maracaibo during World War I[59] proved to be pivotal for Venezuela and transformed the basis of its economy from a heavy dependence on agricultural exports. Venezuela may suffer a deterioration of its power in international affairs if the global transition to renewable energy is completed. Entfernung berechnen. Une plage sur l'île de Margarita, première destination touristique du pays. It gained full sovereignty as a country in 1830. [237], Corruption in Venezuela is high by world standards and was so for much of the 20th century. En 2008, la monnaie locale est renommée bolivar fuerte (VEF) au taux de 1 bolivar fuerte pour 1 000 anciens bolivars. En 2008, le ministre de la Communication déclare que toutes les communications doivent dépendre de l’État en tant que bien public[83]. El Sistema se répand peu à peu, par exemple aux États-Unis dans la ville d'Atlanta où le bassoniste Dantès Rameau a lancé avec un succès fulgurant l'Atlanta Music Project, soutenu par la Municipalité, mais aussi par beaucoup de sponsors individuels et industriels (Coca Cola, AOL, etc.). La culture espagnole a permis l'introduction des instruments comme la guitare, les instruments à cordes, les vents et différents types de percussions (différents des tambours indiens) et de nombreux genres populaires, dont le galerón (en), le corrido et la guaracha. L'exploitation pétrolière commence en 1917. As the government started to devalue the currency in February 1983 to face its financial obligations, Venezuelans' real standards of living fell dramatically. Wo liegt Venezuela? The country falls into four horizontal temperature zones based primarily on elevation, having tropical, dry, temperate with dry winters, and polar (alpine tundra) climates, amongst others. It includes over 320,150 men and women, under Article 328 of the Constitution, in 5 components of Ground, Sea and Air. Venezuela has the largest oil reserves, and the eighth largest natural gas reserves in the world. En 2012, le Venezuela obtient la deuxième médaille d'or de son histoire aux Jeux olympiques d'été de 2012 avec Rubén Limardo, vainqueur en escrime du tournoi d'épée. [158] These include the flor de mayo orchid (Cattleya mossiae), the national flower. [363] Notable Venezuelan artists include Arturo Michelena, Cristóbal Rojas, Armando Reverón, Manuel Cabré; the kinetic artists Jesús Soto, Gego and Carlos Cruz-Diez;[363] and contemporary artists such as Marisol and Yucef Merhi.[364][365]. The election in 1973 of Carlos Andrés Pérez coincided with an oil crisis, in which Venezuela's income exploded as oil prices soared; oil industries were nationalized in 1976. In 1895, a longstanding dispute with Great Britain about the territory of Guayana Esequiba, which Britain claimed as part of British Guiana and Venezuela saw as Venezuelan territory, erupted into the Venezuela Crisis of 1895. Most recently, immigration from the United States, Spain, Italy, and Portugal has further enriched the already complex cultural mosaic (especially in large oil-producing cities)[citation needed]. « [ne contient] pas suffisamment de mesures pour atténuer leur impact sur les couches les plus vulnérables de la population ». • Gillespie, Patrick (12 April 2016). It is estimated that the majority of the population is of mestizo, or mixed, ethnic ancestry. Le Venezuela se placerait ainsi au troisième rang mondial pour la criminalité après le Honduras et le Guatemala. [353] The net primary school enrollment rate was at 91% and the net secondary school enrollment rate was at 63% in 2005. Venezuela was a proponent of OAS's decision to adopt its Anti-Corruption Convention[209] and is actively working in the Mercosur trade bloc to push increased trade and energy integration. It has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil. [319] Due to the belief that this immigration influx depressed wages, some Venezuelans opposed European immigration. Un dixième des 31 millions d'habitants ont fui le pays depuis l'avènement de Nicolás Maduro en 2013. Venezuela. Le 19 avril 1810, une assemblée est formée à la suite de la destitution de Vicente Emparan par l'intermédiaire de l'Acte du 19 avril 1810, gouverneur de la capitainerie générale du Venezuela. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America;[14][15] the vast majority of Venezuelans live in the cities of the north and in the capital. [330][328] Buddhism in Venezuela is practiced by over 52,000 people. In the first half of the 20th century, U.S. oil companies were heavily involved in Venezuela, initially interested only in purchasing concessions. In 1966 the British and Venezuelan governments signed the Geneva Agreement to resolve the conflict peacefully. The Venezuelan president is elected by a vote, with direct and universal suffrage, and is both head of state and head of government. The state of Mérida,[274] for the beauty of its Andean landscapes and its pleasant climate, is one of the main tourist centers of Venezuela. Toutefois, en termes d'héraldique, le cheval se déplace vers la dextre, ce qui rend le message un peu confus. Le merengue venezolano est aussi de grande transcendance national. It also has large areas of arable land and water. Charlie Devereux & Raymond Colitt. Per capita GDP for 2016 was estimated to be US$15,100, ranking 109th in the world. Zeid Ra'ad Zeid Al-Hussein, Haut-Commissaire aux droits de l'Homme de l'ONU, dénonce « un usage excessif de la force » par les autorités vénézuéliennes à l'égard des manifestants[30]. Nevertheless, in the 2011 census, which Venezuelans were asked to identify themselves according to their customs and ancestry, the term mestizo was excluded from the answers. Le Venezuela, pays neutre lors du premier conflit mondial, officialise son soutien aux pays alliés lors de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. En parallèle, les conditions d'accès aux monnaies étrangères sont restreintes pour tous les acteurs de l'économie (étudiants, importateurs, voyageurs, etc.). Le pan de jamón est également un plat typique de Noël. Portuguese is spoken not only by the Portuguese community in Santa Elena de Uairén but also by much of the population due to its proximity to Brazil. [32][33] The crisis in Venezuela has contributed to a rapidly deteriorating human rights situation, including increased abuses such as torture, arbitrary imprisonment, extrajudicial killings and attacks on human rights advocates. Number of kidnappings in Venezuela 1989–2011, Annual variation of real GDP according to the Central Bank of Venezuela (2016 preliminary), Cases of malaria in Venezuela according to the Ministry of Popular Power for Health, Deaths of children under one year in Venezuela according to the Ministry of Popular Power for Health. [37] Late Pleistocene hunting artifacts, including spear tips, have been found at a similar series of sites in northwestern Venezuela known as "El Jobo"; according to radiocarbon dating, these date from 13,000 to 7,000 BC. The president appoints the vice president and decides the size and composition of the cabinet and makes appointments to it with the involvement of the legislature. Dans son livre Summa de Geografía édité en 1519, il affirme que l'expédition a rencontré une population indigène qui se nomme elle-même Veneçiuela, ce qui suggère que le nom Venezuela a pu dériver de ce nom local : « Desdel cabo de Sant Romá al cabo de Coquibacoa ay tres isleos en triángulo. [366] It was originally dominated by Spanish influences. [41] They left behind works of art, particularly anthropomorphic ceramics, but no major monuments. À la fin du XVIIIe siècle et au début du XIXe, inspirés par les révolutions américaines, françaises et haïtiennes, les futurs héros de la nation incarnent un effort d'émancipation et d'indépendance des colonies espagnoles en Amérique. Le pays est riche d'autres matières premières – gaz, ressources hydrauliques avec le barrage de Guri, le 4e plus important au monde, avec une puissance installée de quelque 10 200 MW – d'une importante diversité géographique et d'une mégadiversité remarquable. [378] Venezuela hosted the 2012 Basketball World Olympic Qualifying Tournament and the 2013 FIBA Basketball Americas Championship, which took place in the Poliedro de Caracas. [327] Italian language teaching is guaranteed by the presence of a consistent number of private Venezuelan schools and institutions, where Italian language courses and Italian literature are active. Christophe Colomb est le premier conquérant au service de l'Espagne à atteindre cette région le 3 août 1498, lors de son troisième voyage. Economic crises in the 1980s and 1990s led to a political crisis which resulted in hundreds dead in the Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, and impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for corruption in 1993. Activities eventually were slowly restarted by returning and substitute oil workers. Les prix de certaines denrées de base sont fixés par l'État, ce qui explique, selon l'opposition et la plupart des économistes, la grave pénurie de lait, de sucre et d'œufs. About 93% of the population lives in urban areas in northern Venezuela; 73% live less than 100 kilometres (62 mi) from the coastline. [381], In the 2012 Summer Olympics, Venezuelan Rubén Limardo won a gold medal in fencing.[382]. According to Chávez and other supporters, the "Bolivarian Revolution" seeks to build a mass movement to implement Bolivarianism—popular democracy, economic independence, equitable distribution of revenues, and an end to political corruption—in Venezuela.

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